The French story of environmental politics is a chequered one.

Individual pioneering initiatives took place in 1769, 1854 , 1858 and 1874.

From 1876 to 1894 the anarchist geographer Elisée Reclus wrote 19 volumes on Univesral Geography and 6 volumes of ‘Man and the Earth’.

In 1972, the year the first big green demonstration took place in France, a Ministry of protection of nature and the environment was set up.

A Green candidate first stood in a presidential election in 1974.

A leading environmentalist resigned from Macron’s government in 2018 concerned about the lack of muscle behind its green intentions.

Reclus was the major geographer of the late 19th century focusing on ecology
Jacques Élisée Reclus (1830-1905), a Communard, libertarian geographer and active anarchist