1905 – 1983 • France
Communist • Resistance
A Communist Party member from 1924 he was given political training in Moscow, and from 1934 he was one of the handful of PCF leaders. Elected deputy in 1936 he was jailed by Vichy and then in 1943 represented the PCF in London. From 1964 to 1969 he was General Secretary of the PCF. He reoriented the PCF towards a democratic road to socialism and criticised Russia for the invasion of Czechoslovakia and then fell ill in 1969 after a visit to the USSR.