Opened in 1861 the road was renamed in 1867 after one of the major influences on the teaching of medicine in France, Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis.
The hôpital Sainte-Anne at No. 1 was funded by the Queen Regent, Anne of Austria, in 1651 in exchange for it being called by her name and prayers being given for her soul by the inmates. It was completely rebuilt in 1772, and in 1863 Napoléon III decided to build a psychiatric hospital or asylum on the site of the neighbouring Saints-Anne farm.
Althusser was one of the many patients treated at the hospital. His first time was in 1947 and last in 1980, after he strangled his wife.
Other patients included Maurice Utrillo in 1904 to try and cure his alcoholism.