1796 – 1865 • France
Philippe Buchez, an active member of the French Carbonari anti-Bourbon secret society in 1822, became a doctor in 1825 and founded the influential Social Christian movement of the 1830s
Buchez inspired the workers’ cooperative movement of the 1840s. In May 1848 he became the first president of a French Assembly elected by (male) universal suffrage. His presidency last 18 days.
1817 – 1888 • France
Cooperatism • Fourier • Familistère de Guise
Jean-Baptiste André Godin, a follower of Fourier founded the utopian Home/Workshop (Familistère de Guise) in 1859
Republican, democrat and early socialist, from 1859 to 1882 Godin built a ‘family palace’ with a park, allotments, swimming pool, schools and library alongside a factory. 2,000 families lived there in 1882 and more than 1,200 worked in the cooperative association’s factory.
A Proudhonist supporter of the First International from 1865, she was one of the leaders of the Women’s Union during the Commune and helped build a barricade at the Place Pigalle and placed red flag on it. Deported to New Caledonia, she returned to France in 1879, and supported La Revue socialiste in the 1880s.
Leroux evolved from the elitist Saint-Simon movement to socialism, the term he was the first to coin in 1834. He saw fraternité as being central but being challenged by both liberté and égalité. He fought for mutualist and associationist socialism. Lived in exile from 1851 to 1860.
He died under the Paris Commune in April 1871 and was buried in the Montparnasse cemetery.
- 35 Quai des Grands Augustines (at the time no 40): Pierre Leroux’s birthplace in a small bar run by his parents
- 14 Rue Champagne. Leroux attended the Lycee Champagne.
- 6 rue Monsigny: Third floor office of the liberal newspaper Le Globe set up by Leroux and Paul-François Dubois in September 1824 before Leroux became a Saint-Simonien around 1830, when the paper becomes the organ of the Saint-Simoniens.
- 4 rue des Poitevins: Printshop where Leroux worked when he launched Le Globe, and were it was printed.
- 10 rue Jacob: Pauline Roland‘s address. Leroux also lived there for some time in 1832.
- 26 rue des Saints-Pères: Office of La Revue encyclopédique where Leroux first used the word ‘socialism’ in an article published in March 1824 called ‘From Individualism to Socialism‘.
- 20 rue de Savoie: Leroux was involved in setting up an illegal skilled workers’ association of Parisian typesetters here in 1839. Typesetting became the most unionised sector of Paris workers by the end of the 19th century.
- 87 boulevard du Montparnasse: Leroux and George Sand set up the journal called the Revue des Indépendants in 1841 in the Hunting lodge at this address.
- 14 rue des Moulins (at the time 32, rue des Moulins, on the corner with la rue Neuve des Petits Champs): The location of the offices of the Franco-German Annals, where Leroux met Marx, Proudhon, Bakunin, Cabet, Blanc and many other socialists in 1844.
- Palais Royal garden: This was where in March 1848 Leroux, Barbès. Proudhon, Arago and others founded the Revolution Club.
- 12 ter rue Coquillière: The office of The True Republic in whose March issue Leroux, Sand and Barbès argue that ‘Without social reform, there is absolutely no true Republic’.
- Paris Town Hall, 10 place de l’ Hôtel de Ville: On 15 May 1848 Leroux is one of those who take over the Town Hall and proclaim a new government, before being thrown out and then arrested.
- 3 rue Coq Héron: In 1848 the offices of two socialist papers set up by Leroux, ‘The Republic‘ and ‘The Organiser of Work‘ were both based at this address.
Proudhon was the major influence on the core beliefs of French left in the 19th and early 20th centuries. His ideas can be seen to have shaped anarchists, socialists, utopian communists, cooperatists and revolutionary syndicalists and created a backcloth of sympathy and support for a democracy involving working people that kept attracting artists and writers to the left throughout the century following his first major work ‘What is Property’ in 1840.
When Marx was in Paris in 1843-1845 Proudhon discussed politics with him frequently in a bar in the Rue Coquillière and at their respective homes in the Rue Vaneau and 36 Rue Mazarine. Proudhon later moved to 70 rue Mazarine where he was living in 1847 and in the revolutionary year 1848.
In 1849 he was jailed in St Pélagie prison, where he was kept until 1852. He was out on parole at the moment of Louis-Napoleon’s 2 December 1851 coup d’etat. He had to inform Victor Hugo regretfully that as a result he was not in a position at that moment to defend the Republic.
- 55 Quai des Grands Augustins 6 arr. Printshop where Proudhon is supposed to have worked briefly, meeting Fourier in 1828, before returning to Besançon ;
- 31 Boulevard St Michel , 6 arr. Courbet’s first Parisian workshop (at the time the location of the demolished 89 rue de la Harpe) where he met Proudhon in 1842;
- 4 Rue de Bourgogne, 7 arr. Proudhon often used to meet Bakunin at his lodgings in a Slave enclave between 1844 and 1847;
- 14 Rue des Moulins, 1 arr. Proudhon attended the meetings of the editorial committee of the Franco-German Annals journal held here with Marx in 1844;
- 154 Rue Montmartre, 2 arr. Proudhon’s first newspaper ‘The people’s representative‘ was produced here, appearing first on 27 February 1848 and running until August 1848;
- 23 Rue du Faubourg St Denis, 10 arr. The site of the short-lived People’s Bank established by Proudhon to try and put his ideas into practice in 1849.
- 46 Rue Boulard, 14 arr. Proudhon lived here first after his release from jail in 1852
- 83 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau 14 arr. was where Proudhon moved to in the mid 1850s,
- 14 Rue Jacob, 6 arr. in 1862 Proudhon lived in a house off the back of the yard behind the building here.
- 12 Rue de Passy, 16 arr. Where Proudhon lived for the last few years of his life and died on 19 January 1865.
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