Daniel Stern (Marie d’Agoult)

1805-1876 • Germany

Romantic author • Historian

Daniel Stern, her pseudonym, was a republican whose salon was visited by Marx in 1844. She lived with Lizst and wrote the History of the 1848 Revolution.

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DANIEL STERN PLACES

Ouvrier Albert / Alexandre Martin

1815 – 1895 • France

Revolutionary • Socialist

Alexandre Martin, known to everyone in Paris as the ‘Worker’ Albert, was the first working class man to enter a French Government in February 1848.

Revolutionary and socialist, ‘Worker Albert’ served on the 1848 Labour Commission before being jailed in May 1848.

Locations

  • 15, rue Neuve-de-Ménilmontant (now rue de Commines). In 1839 Albert lived here when he was one of the leaders of the Four Seasons Club organised by Blanqui and Barbes, .
  • 131, rue Vieille-du-Temple Albert was arrested in January 1841 after the assassination attempt on Louis-Philippe on 15 October 1840, when he lived at this address. finding communist pamphlets at the house he was jailed for a month for belong to a Communist club.
  • 64 rue Léon Frot. Albert worked in the button manufacturer Batperosses from 1845 to 1848.
  • 11 rue des Bourdonnais. Offices of ‘Reform’ journal and meeting place on 21 February 1848 of republicans about their attitude to the ban on the Paris banquet. Albert attended as did at least two police spies. On 24 February this was where a left list for the government was drawn up. Albert’s name was added when the offices were invaded by a delegation of workers was there along with those of Ledru-Rollin and Louis Blanc.
  • Luxembourg Palace. On February 28 the Luxembourg Commission was established and moved in. It included Albert and Louis Blanc as well as Victor Considerant, a follower of Fourier. One of the police spies was arrested in Albert’s office in the palace on March 14 1848.
  • 10 place de l’ Hôtel de Ville. Paris Town Hall. On 15 May 1848 among the demonstrators who seized the Town Hall were Albert, Blanqui, Louis Blanc, Cabet, Pierre Leroux and Raspail, Shortly afterwards they were evicted by the still selective (wealthier) National Guard on the orders of Ledru-Rollin and Lamartine. Raspail was arrested at about 6 pm and transferred to the Vincennes Prison.

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OUVRIER ALBERT PLACES

Pierre-Jean de Béranger

1780 – 1857 • France

Song-writer * Constitutional monarchist * Republican

Pierre-Jean Béranger was the most influential French song-writer of the 19th century.

He was born at 50 Rue Montorgueil on August 19 1780, but was brought up by his grandfather, a tailer who lived at an address unknown in the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine. There, as a small child he witnessed the storming of the Bastille.

By the time he was 20 he was living in a shack at 50 Rue René Boulanger.

He began writing patriotic songs that were appreciated both under Napoleon and initially under Louis XVIII. But by 1821 his songs began to bite at the Bourbons and in December 1821 he was jailed in the political wing of the Ste Pélagie prison whose entrance was at nos 2-8 Rue du Puits de l’Ermite. Released after winning an appeal three months later, he found his popularity greatly enhanced.

In the mid-1820s under the Restoration Béranger lived at 27 Rue des Martyrs. On August 24 1827 he took part in the funeral at Père Lachaise cemetery of his friend from up the road, Jacques-Antoine Manuel, alongside whom Béranger himself would be buried thirty years later. An elected deputy Manuel had been thrown out of the National Assembly in 1823 for opposing the Bourbons sending troops to support the Spanish king Ferdinand VII against a popular uprising.

In March 1828 Béranger was jailed for the second time. On this occasion he spent nine months at the La Force prison for publishing another collection of his anti-Bourbon patriotic songs.

His songs helped shape the cultural background for the widespread support for the 1830 July Revolution.

From 1833 to 1835 Béranger lived in an attic room on the 2nd floor of 42 Rue Raynouard in the 16th arrondissement. In 1839 he published two poems reflecting the influence on him of Saint-Simon and Cabet, one of which, ‘Madmen‘ has been described (in the Maitron) as ‘publicly showing his sympathy for all forms of socialism’. The other, the Old Tramp, confirms his humanism.

A few years later from 1841 up to 1848 he lived in another 16th arrondissement flat at 19 Rue Vineuse. He made much of his ordinary background, writing of how ‘low’ he was in his 1847 poem ‘Villain’.

Viewed as France’s ‘national poet’, his songs with their indirect critique of the Bourbons led him to imprisonment. He appealed to liberals, republicans, Bonapartists and socialists. Under the Second Empire he was criticised for having in part helped build up the Napoleonic myth that allowed Louis-Napoleon to take power.

The first statue of Béranger in the Square du Temple was sculpted by Amédée Doublemard,. it was erected by public subscription in 1879 and placed close to where he had lived. It was melted down to provide bronze for the German Army occupiers in 1942,

Béranger died on July 16 1857 in the top floor of No 5 Rue Vendôme, that was renamed Rue Béranger in 1864. When he lived there the regency mansion built between 1720 and 1725 was called the Hotel de la Haye. It is now the Pierre-Jean-de-Béranger Secondary School while the mansion next door is the Béranger Primary School.

A second Béranger statue by Henri Lagriffoul took the place of the first in 1953.

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BÉRANGER PLACES

Victor Hugo

1802-1885 • France

Author • Republican

Poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers.  But his life (and loves) were much more complicated. He started as a monarchist and ended a principled republican.

Huge celebrations were held in Paris on 28 February 1882 to celebrate Victor Hugo’s 80th birthday. An estimated 600,000 people paraded beneath his windows at 124, avenue Victor Hugo, that had been renamed in his honour the year before. This was also the address where he died on 22 May 1885.

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Pierre Leroux

1797 – 1871 • France

Cooperatism • Republican • Socialism

Leroux evolved from the elitist Saint-Simon movement to socialism, the term he was the first to coin in 1834. He saw fraternité as being central but being challenged by both liberté and égalité. He fought for mutualist and associationist socialism. Lived in exile from 1851 to 1860.

He died under the Paris Commune in April 1871 and was buried in the Montparnasse cemetery.

Locations
  • 35 Quai des Grands Augustines (at the time no 40): Pierre Leroux’s birthplace in a small bar run by his parents
  • 14 Rue Champagne. Leroux attended the Lycee Champagne.
  • 6 rue Monsigny: Third floor office of the liberal newspaper Le Globe set up by Leroux and Paul-François Dubois in September 1824 before Leroux became a Saint-Simonien around 1830, when the paper becomes the organ of the Saint-Simoniens.
  • 4 rue des Poitevins: Printshop where Leroux worked when he launched Le Globe, and were it was printed.
  • 10 rue Jacob: Pauline Roland‘s address. Leroux also lived there for some time in 1832.
  • 26 rue des Saints-Pères: Office of La Revue encyclopédique where Leroux first used the word ‘socialism’ in an article published in March 1824 called ‘From Individualism to Socialism‘.
  • 20 rue de Savoie: Leroux was involved in setting up an illegal skilled workers’ association of Parisian typesetters here in 1839. Typesetting became the most unionised sector of Paris workers by the end of the 19th century.
  • 87 boulevard du Montparnasse: Leroux and George Sand set up the journal called the Revue des Indépendants  in 1841 in the Hunting lodge at this address.
  • 14 rue des Moulins (at the time 32, rue des Moulins, on the corner with la rue Neuve des Petits Champs): The location of the offices of the Franco-German Annals, where Leroux met Marx, Proudhon, Bakunin, Cabet, Blanc and many other socialists in 1844.
  • Palais Royal garden: This was where in March 1848 Leroux, Barbès. Proudhon, Arago and others founded the Revolution Club.
  • 12 ter rue Coquillière: The office of The True Republic in whose March issue Leroux, Sand and Barbès argue that ‘Without social reform, there is absolutely no true Republic’.
  • Paris Town Hall, 10 place de l’ Hôtel de Ville: On 15 May 1848 Leroux is one of those who take over the Town Hall and proclaim a new government, before being thrown out and then arrested.
  • 3 rue Coq Héron: In 1848 the offices of two socialist papers set up by Leroux, ‘The Republic‘ and ‘The Organiser of Work‘ were both based at this address.

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Victor Schoelcher

1804 – 1893 • France

Human rights • Anti-slavery campaigner • Republican

This revolutionary republican campaigner against slavery was born in Paris in what was then the 5th arrondisement and is now in the 10th, at 60 Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis.

His father was a wealthy owner of a porcelain factory who was well able to afford to send his son to the Lycée Condorcet that opened in 1803 in what is now 8 Rue du Havre, the monastery built just before the Revolution in the 1780s. When Schoelcher was there it changed its name. It had been called the Lycée impérial Bonaparte from 1805 to 1815 and then became the Collège royal de Bourbon from 1815 until February 1848.

As a wealthy young man Schoelcher entered the circles where got to know George Sand, Hector Berlioz and Franz Liszt. In 1828 his father sent him off to represent the business in Mexico and the United States and then to Cuba in 1829 where he found slavery absolutely abhorrent.

Returning to France in 1830 Schoelcher became a journalist and art critic and well as a lifelong campaigner against slavery. In 1832 he sold the business he inherited from his father to enable him to concentrate on journalism and politics.

In 1833 his first book, On the slavery of Black people and Colonial Law was an indictment of slavery and called for its abolition. It also argued that although the workers had made the 1830 Revolution, they were being deprived of their rights.

In 1834 he was one of a large number of young republicans who were jailed at Sainte-Pélagie prison after the Rue Transonain massacre in April.

Elected to the National Assembly after the 1848 February Revolution he drafted the bill abolishing slavery.

On December 3 1851 he went to the barricade at the corner of the then Rue Sainte-Marguerite (now Rue Trousseau) with the Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine. He and other deputies such as Alphonse Baudin wanted to strengthen the mobilsation of workers protesting Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte’s coup d’État of the previous day.

Schoelcher then led several of the unarmed deputies out to talk with the soliders sent to suppress the revolt. Alphonse Baduin, jumped up to the top of barricade with a flag and was immediately shot dead.

Exiled from 1851 to 1870 he later wrote a biography of Toussaint L’Ouverture.

After his return to France in 1870 he was elected to the National Assembly and sat on the extreme left of the deputies in Versaillais during the Commune. In 1875 he was elected a senator for life.

Schoelcher photographed by Nadar in the 1870s

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