1948-1957

Fourth Republic

During the Cold War Picasso supported the Communist Party’s campaign for peace that was essentially aimed at stopping the rearmament of West Germany by the United States

Cold war in France, Trade union split, Indo-Chinese war, European Economic Community, Suez, Algerian War – in progress

Rue de Richelieu

Arrondissements 1, 2

Number: 58, 64, 66, 102, 104, 110,

The magnificent reading room of the National Library of France at No. 58 used by both Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg as well as many other socialists and communists..

Lenin got a reader’s ticket to No. 58 on the recommendation of a socialist member of parliament, Louis Roblin. Lenin visited the library regularly throughout his stay in Paris from 1909 to 1912. On one occasion the bicycle he used to journey from the 14th arrondissement was stolen according to police reports.

The journal of the Internationalist Communist Party, French Section of the Fourth International, Workers’ Truth, that appeared from August 1952 to May 1962, was based at offices at No. 64. Michel Raptis (Pablo), based in Paris until De Gaulle’s 1958 Coup d’Etat was the 4th International’s secretary through this period.

In March 1848 the Fraternal Association of Linen Seamstresses, a women’s revolutionary club set up by Elisa Lemonnier and its president, Désirée Gay, used to meet at No. 66, the Hôtel de Brouilly.

On July 27 1830 the seizure of the presses at the printshop of the ‘Times’ ( Le Temps) at No. 102 was the trigger that set off the 1830 July Revolution against the increasing Bourbon repression under Charles X.

The first meeting of the radical republican Friends of the People club, attended by Pierre-Jean de Béranger and Étienne Cabet among others took place at No. 104 on July 30 1830.

The editorial offices of the socialist daily paper launched on April 18 1904 by Jean Jaurès, Anatole France, Octave Mirbeau and Aristide Briand and others, l’Humanité, were then at No. 110.

The near kilometre-long road stretching northwards from the centre of Paris was given the name in 1633 after Cardinal Richelieu, alongside his Cardinal Palace (now the Palais-Royal). During the French Revolution, from 1793 to 1806 it was called the Rue de la Loi.

MAP

Communism

Communism as an international struggle for freedom. This 1951 socialist realist painting by Boris Taslitkzy shows French dockers fighting to stop arms going to French Indochina

What is shared between those who define themselves or are defined by others as ‘communist’? And how may ‘Communism’ be distinguished both from French anarchism and French socialism, with which it shared much common history and ground?

Babeuf was guillotined on 27 May 1797 as leader of the Conspiracy of Equals against the Directorate

Manifesto of Equals

The 1795 Paris revolutionary ‘Manifesto of Equals’ inspired by François-Noel Babeuf and rescued from oblivion by Philippe Buonarroti (1761-1837) summarised what remained (and remains) common to nearly all those who described themselves as communist across the following two hundred and some years:

We need not only that equality of rights written into the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen; we want it in our midst, under the roofs of our houses… We lean towards something more sublime and more just: the common good or the community of property! No more individual property in land: the land belongs to no one. We demand, we want, the common enjoyment of the fruits of the land: the fruits belong to all.

We declare that we can no longer put up with the fact that the great majority work and sweat for the smallest of minorities. Long enough, and for too long, less than a million individuals have disposed of that which belongs to 20 million of their kind, their equals.

Let it at last end, this great scandal that our descendants will never believe existed! Disappear at last, revolting distinctions between rich and poor, great and small, masters and servants, rulers and ruled.’

After agreeing to this general statement of belief, communists had much more to disagree with each other upon.  

We have divided the considerable history of Communism in France into five periods:

Communism 1830-1917

For nearly 80 years before the redefining of communism with the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the 1920 formation of the…

Communism 1918-1938

The Communist (Third) International was formed in Russia in 1919. The Soviet Communist Party directly dictated French Communist Party policy from…

Communism 1939-1947

From the shock of the 1939 non-aggression pact between Moscow and Berlin to holding ministries in the French government from 1945…

Communism 1978-to date

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the end of the Soviet Union, changes to its traditional working class constituency…